PSY/315
STATISTICAL REASONING IN PSYCHOLOGY
The Latest Version A+ Study Guide
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PSY 315 Entire Course Link
https://uopcourses.com/category/psy315/
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Completethe University of Phoenix Material: Week 1 Practice Worksheet.
Clickthe Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
Week 1 Practice Worksheet
Provide a response to the following questions. Written responses should be at least 30 to 45 words each.
1.Explain and provide an example for each of the following types of variables:
a.Nominal:
b.Ordinal:
c.Interval:
d.Ratio scale:
e.Continuous:
f.Discrete:
g.Quantitative:
h.Qualitative:
2.The following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35 milesperhour zone on an afternoon:
30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20
24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40
Create a frequency table and a histogram. Then, describe the general shape of the distribution.
3.Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics (such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites) to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p. 565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators of traditional and electronic bullying.
a.Using the table below as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never taken a course in statistics.
b.Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.
Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N = 84) 

Forms of bullying 
N 
% 

Electronic victims 
41 
48.8 

Textmessage victim 
27 
32.1 

Internet victim (websites, chatrooms) 
13 
15.5 

Cameraphone victim 
8 
9.5 

Traditional victims 
60 
71.4 

Physical victim 
38 
45.2 

Teasing victim 
50 
59.5 

Rumors victim 
32 
38.6 

Exclusion victim 
30 
50 

Electronic bullies 
18 
21.4 

Textmessage bully 
18 
21.4 

Internet bully 
11 
13.1 

Traditional bullies 
54 
64.3 

Physical bully 
29 
34.5 

Teasing bully 
38 
45.2 

Rumor bully 
22 
26.2 

Exclusion bully 
35 
41.7 
4.Describe whether each of the following data words best describes descriptive statistics or inferential statistics. Explain your reasoning.
5.Compare the three types of research methods and statistics.
6.Regarding gun ownership in the United States, data from Gallup polls over a 40year period show how gun ownership in the United States has changed. The results are described below, with the percentage of Americans who own guns given in each of the 5 decades.
Year 
% 
1972 
43 
1982 
42 
1992 
48 
2002 
40 
2012 
43 
7.Refer to the SimpsonSouthward et al. (2016) article from this week’s electronic readings. Was this an example of inferential statistics and research or descriptive statistics and research? Justify your response.
Complete the Week 2 Practice Worksheet.
Use Microsoft^{®} Virtual Academy for any help using Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®}.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your completed worksheet.
Provide a response to the following prompts.
1.The Wilcox & Keselman (2003) article from this week’s electronic readings discusses two problems with measures of central tendency: skewness of the data and outliers. Discuss each of these issues and how they affect measures of central tendency.
2.How do the sample mean and the population mean differ? What is the symbol for each type of mean?
3.An expert reviews a sample of 10 scientific articles (n = 10) and records the following numbers of error in each article: 0, 4, 2, 8, 2, 3, 1, 0, 5, and 7.
a.Compute the mean, median, mode, sum of squares (SS), the variance, and the standard deviation for this sample using the definitional and computational formulas. You may use Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®} data anlysis to compute these statistics and copy your output into this worksheet.
Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics what you have done.
b.Note the ways in which the means and standard deviations differ, and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences, presuming they are representative of U.S. governors and large corporations’ CEOs in general.
4.A researcher records the levels of attraction for various fashion models among college students. He finds that mean levels of attraction are much higher than the median and the mode for these data.
a.What is the shape of the distribution for the data in this study?
b.What measure of central tendency is most appropriate for describing these data? Why?
a.above .10?
b.below .10?
c.above .20?
d.below .20?
e.above 1.10?
f.below 1.10?
Assuming that all students attend his class that day, how many students will the instructor select to complete his questionnaire?
a.How would you select the people to survey?
b.Why would that be your best method?
10.In a school band, 9 kids play string instruments, 10 kids play woodwind instruments, 7 kids play brass instruments, and 4 kids play percussion instruments.
a.What is the probability that you randomly select a kid who plays a string or percussion instrument?
b.What is the probability that you randomly select a kid who does not play a brass instrument?
Resource: Inferential Research and Statistics Project
Use the provided data set to complete Part 1 of the Inferential Research and Statistics Project.
UseMicrosoft^{®}Virtual Academy for any help using Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®}.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
Select one of the following scenarios based on your particular field of interest in psychology:
Industrial/Organizational Psychology:
oA few months ago, the upper management at a large corporation decided they wanted to make major changes in the organization. Leadership is concerned that employees may be resistant to the change, and they want to find out if there is a change management method that would help employees accept change more effectively and keep employee satisfaction high. Two methods they have considered are the ADKAR Framework and the Prosci Change Management Methodology. The company wants to implement a small change in two departments before they make any major organization changes and would like to test the methods. The corporation uses the Devine Company to measure employee satisfaction with an anonymous survey.
Applied Psychology:
oA large medical facility is experiencing too many missed appointments in its primary and specialty care clinics. The facility has noticed that not all patients respond well to reminder calls regarding followup appointments. Some patients do not answer calls and do not seem to respond to voice mail requesting they call the facility. The result is that many followup appointments are missed. Facility management have read articles that indicate people respond very well to text messages and would like to see which method provides the least amount of missed appointments. Missed appointments are tracked in the facility database on a monthly basis.
General Psychology:
oClinicians at a small clinic have been introduced to a new method to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their clients for veterans. Research indicates that virtual reality (VR) is a highly effective treatment option for patients with PTSD. Currently, the clinic uses only cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with their patients suffering from PTSD. The clinicians would like to find out whether VR therapy has different results from CPT therapy. The measure used by the clinic to measure PTSD symptoms is the Combat Exposure Scale. Both therapies need to be applied for a minimum of 12 weeks to be effective.
Write a 525 to 750word paper that addresses the following for your chosen scenario:
Clearly define the problem or issue you are addressing. Provide a brief background of any research you have found that might affect your research hypothesis.
Create a research hypothesis based on the information provided in each scenario. You have been given a data set (Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®} document) with two sets of interval data (just the numbers, as you must decide what they represent, such as method A results or method B results). This means you are going to test one thing against another, such as which method works best (step 1 of the steps to hypothesis testing). State the null and research hypotheses. Explain whether these hypotheses require a onetailed test or twotailed test, and explain your rationale.
Describe the sample you will use. Sample size will be 30 for each group, which are provided in your data set. Explain what type of sampling you selected.
Do you think you would also collect some descriptive data, such as gender, age, or shift? Why do you think it makes sense to collect descriptive data?
Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
Example
You have a hypothesis that two drugs have different effects on lowering anxiety. You would have anxiety scores for drug A and anxiety scores for drug B (all after 4 weeks of treatment) to run inferential analysis for after 4 weeks.
Null hypothesis is H_{0}: drug A = drug B
Research hypothesis is H_{1}:_{ }drug A ≠ drug B
Dependent variable: anxiety score changed after treatment
Independent variable: drug treatment
Because you did not state a direction in your hypotheses (better than or worse than), this will be a twotailed test. You are looking for differences in either direction. You would set your alpha level of .05 and have a sample for each group of 30 people that were volunteers for the study.
Complete the Week 3 Practice Worksheet.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your completed worksheet
Provide a response to the following prompts.
Note: Each team member should compute the following questions and submit them to the Learning Team forum. The team should then discuss each team member’s answers to ascertain the correct answer for each question. Once your team has answered all the questions, submit a finalized team worksheet.
a.μM = __________.
b.σM = __________.
c.The shape of the comparison distribution is __________.
d.If the sample mean is 75, the lower limit for the 99% confidence interval is __________.
e.If the sample mean is 75, the upper limit for the 99% confidence interval is __________.
f.If the sample mean is 75, the lower limit for the 95% confidence interval is __________.
g.If the sample mean is 75, the upper limit for the 95% confidence interval is __________.
Resource: Inferential Research and Statistics Project
Complete Part 2 of the Inferential Research and Statistics Project.
Use the provided data set from Week 3.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
Note: If you have trouble using Microsoft^{® }Excel^{®} to complete this portion of the project, please review the t Test: TwoSample Assuming Equal Variances Tutorial.
Analyze the data from Part 1 using Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®} software.
Write a 700 to 875word paper that includes the following information:
Describe what method you are using to compare groups.
Copy and paste the output into a Microsoft^{®} Word document, and also answer the following questions:
oWhat is the significance level of the comparison?
oWhat was the alpha level you identified in Week 3?
oWhat was the means and variance for each variable?
oWhat was the test statistic?
oWhat was the critical value for both the one and twotailed test?
oWas your test onetailed or twotailed?
oWere you able to reject the null hypothesis? In other words, did you prove there was a difference?
Talk about what these results mean in everyday language and in context to your chosen scenario.
Make a recommendation based on the findings.
Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
Example of Output You Would Use to Answer These Questions
t Test: TwoSample Assuming Equal Variances 


Variable 1 
Variable 2 
Mean 
4.875 
8 
Variance 
5.267857143 
18.28571429 
Observations 
8 
8 
Pooled variance 
11.77678571 

Hypothesized mean difference 
0 

df 
14 

t stat 
1.821237697 

P(T <= t) onetail 
0.045002328 

t Critical onetail 
1.761310136 

P(T <= t) twotail 
0.090004655 

t Critical twotail 
2.144786688 
Complete the Week 4 Practice Worksheet.
UseMicrosoft^{®}Virtual Academy for any help using Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®}.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
Provide a response to the following prompts.
Note: Each team member should compute the following questions and submit them to the Learning Team forum. The team should then discuss each team member’s answers to ascertain the correct answer for each question. Once your team has answered all the questions, submit a finalized team worksheet.
1.Two boats, the Prada (Italy) and the Oracle (USA), are competing for a spot in the upcoming America’s Cup race. They race over a part of the course several times. The sample times in minutes for the Prada were as follows: 12.9, 12.5, 11.0, 13.3, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 12.3, 14.2, and 11.3. The sample times in minutes for the Oracle were as follows: 14.1, 14.1, 14.2, 17.4, 15.8, 16.7, 16.1, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 10.8, and 19.0. For data analysis, the appropriate test is the t test: twosample assuming unequal variances.
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t test, unequal variance) 

Prada 
Oracle 

12.170 
14.875 
mean 

1.056 
2.208 
std. dev. 

10 
12 
n 

16 
df 

2.7050 
difference (Prada  Oracle) 

0.7196 
standard error of difference 

0 
hypothesized difference 

3.76 
t 

.0017 
pvalue (twotailed) 

4.2304 
confidence interval 95% lower 

1.1796 
confidence interval 95% upper 

1.5254 
margin of error 

The previous table shows the results of this independent t test. At the .05 significance level, can you conclude that there is a difference in their mean times? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but who is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.
2.The Willow Run Outlet Mall has two Haggar Outlet Stores, one located on Peach Street and the other on Plum Street. The two stores are laid out differently, but both store managers claim their layout maximizes the amounts customers will purchase on impulse. A sample of 10 customers at the Peach Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than planned: $17.58, $19.73, $12.61, $17.79, $16.22, $15.82, $15.40, $15.86, $11.82, $15.85. A sample of 14 customers at the Plum Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than they planned when they entered the store: $18.19, $20.22, $17.38, $17.96, $23.92, $15.87, $16.47, $15.96, $16.79, $16.74, $21.40, $20.57, $19.79, $14.83. For data analysis, a t test: twosample assuming unequal variances was used.
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t test, unequal variance) 

Peach Street 
Plum Street 

15.8680 
18.2921 
mean 

2.3306 
2.5527 
std. dev. 

10 
14 
n 

20 
df 

2.42414 
difference (Peach Street  Plum Street) 

1.00431 
standard error of difference 

0 
hypothesized difference 

2.41 
t 

.0255 
pvalue (twotailed) 

5.28173 
confidence interval 99.% lower 

0.43345 
confidence interval 99.% upper 

2.85759 
margin of error 

At the .01 significance level, is there a difference in the mean amount purchased on an impulse at the two stores? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but who is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.
3.Fry Brothers Heating and Air Conditioning, Inc. employs Larry Clark and George Murnen to make service calls to repair furnaces and air conditioning units in homes. Tom Fry, the owner, would like to know whether there is a difference in the mean number of service calls they make per day. Assume the population standard deviation for Larry Clark is 1.05 calls per day, and 1.23 calls per day for George Murnen. A random sample of 40 days last year showed that Larry Clark made an average of 4.77 calls per day. For a sample of 50 days, George Murnen made an average of 5.02 calls per day.
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t test, pooled variance) 

Larry 
George 

4.77 
5.02 
mean 

1.05 
1.23 
std. dev. 

40 
50 
n 

88 
df 

0.25000 
difference (Larry  George) 

1.33102 
pooled variance 

1.15370 
pooled std. dev. 

0.24474 
standard error of difference 

0 
hypothesized difference 

1.02 
t 

.3098 
pvalue (twotailed) 

0.73636 
confidence interval 95.% lower 

0.23636 
confidence interval 95.% upper 

0.48636 
margin of error 
At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the mean number of calls per day between the two employees? What is the pvalue?
4.An organizational psychologist measures levels of job satisfaction in a sample of 30 participants. To measure the variance of job satisfaction, it is calculated that the SS = 120 for this sample.
Resource: Inferential Research and Statistics Project
Complete Part 3 of the Inferential Research and Statistics Project.
Use Tutorials & Guides if you need any help creating your presentation.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
Create a 12 to 15slide presentation using the information you gathered and submitted in Weeks 3 and 4. Include the following:
Describe the problem and provide some brief background information about the situation.
Explain the research hypothesis.
Describe your sample and your sampling method.
Explain the four steps of the research process you followed, and define the critical value and the test statistic your analysis provided.
Provide the main finding of the study. What did you prove or fail to prove?
Provide recommendations based on your findings.
Format any citations in your presentation according to APA guidelines.
Complete the Week 5 Practice Worksheet.
Use Microsoft^{®} Virtual Academy for any help using Microsoft^{®} Excel^{®}.
Select the Assignment Files tab to submit your completed worksheet.
Provide a response to the following prompts.
Note: Each team member should compute the following questions and submit them to the Learning Team forum. The team should then discuss each team member’s answers to ascertain the correct answer for each question. Once your team has answered all the questions, submit a finalized team worksheet.
Your research team has been tasked with finding the correlation of the following scenario:
Four research participants take a test of manual dexterity (high scores mean better dexterity) and an anxiety test (high scores mean more anxiety). The scores are as follows:
Person Dexterity Anxiety
1 1 10
2 1 8
3 2 4
4 4 2
Describe the process your research team would go through by completing the following:
1.Create a scatter diagram of the scores.
2.Describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any.
3.Figure the correlation coefficient.
4.Explain the logic of what you have done, writing as if you are speaking to someone who has never heard of correlation (but who does understand the mean, standard deviation, Z scores, and hypothesis testing).
5.Provide three logically possible directions of causality, indicating for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for the correlation based on the variables involved. Explain your answer.